December 16, We know why projects fail, we know how to prevent their failure — so why do they still fail? But the author was talking about Information Technology and Information System project failures, as they existed in Information Technology and Information System failures have been the topic of many articles, conferences, symposiums, studies, and research initiatives. The literature of the IT and IS community is rife with articles and commentary about project failures.
Reid Lyon and Vinita Chhabra To prevent reading failure, educators must understand and act on scientific evidence. Because students who do not learn to read will have difficulty mastering academic content, succeeding in school, and fulfilling their life potential, the schools' fundamental responsibility is to ensure that all students read proficiently.
Yet that goal remains elusive. The report of the most Research papers illiteracy National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP indicates that once again, 4th, 8th, and 12th grade reading scores are abysmally low, particularly among disadvantaged students National Center for Education Statistics, This situation is especially distressing because we now know that the majority of students can learn to read irrespective of their backgrounds—if their reading instruction is grounded in the converging scientific evidence about how reading develops, why many students have difficulties, and how we can prevent reading failure Lyon, ; Moats, ; Shaywitz, Unfortunately, many teachers do not have the background or training they need to access this information and implement research-based reading instruction in their classrooms.
Instead of looking to authoritative and valid evidence of what works, teachers frequently rely on experience and anecdotal information to guide their teaching. Although experience is valuable, depending on experience alone typically leaves many children behind.
To provide reading instruction that will enable all students to succeed, educators must also have basic information about scientific knowledge: Understanding Scientific Evidence Scientific evidence must become a fundamental part of teaching. Teachers should ask hard questions about the reading programs and instructional methods they use: Does the program comprehensively cover each of the evidence-based skills that students need to read proficiently?
Has the program or approach been proven scientifically to work with students like mine?
How can I be sure? From talking to principals and teachers, we know that they are aware of the current emphasis on using scientific evidence to inform instruction. However, jargon and a lack of clear guidance make it difficult for educators to develop a good understanding of the term scientific evidence.
What Is Scientific Evidence? Before considering research evidence, however, we must understand the process of conducting scientific research.
Scientific research begins with clear, answerable questions. Researchers consider not just what works in general but also what specific instructional methods work for which students and under what conditions.
Multiple researchers may study the same questions. The accumulation of research—not just the results from one study—constitutes scientific evidence. Before beginning a study, researchers identify what previous research has already established and refine their research questions on the basis of that knowledge.
Next, the researchers develop a hypothesis or a set of hypotheses that will guide the direction and methodology used in the study.
Specifically, the hypotheses state what researchers predict will happen on the basis of the theoretical model they are using, with the model itself incorporating information from previously conducted, high-quality studies.
The researchers then identify an appropriate method for testing the hypothesis. Finally, they collect and analyze the data and report their findings.
Even though different types of studies use different method-ologies, the scientific method provides a consistent foundation for each research study.
The evidence derived from a study is only as good as the care with which the researchers ask their questions, select and implement their research methods, and analyze and interpret their data.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Research methodologies fall into two major types—qualitative and quantitative. Both types of research can be valuable and relevant to improving education.
Qualitative research is based on holistic inquiry and is context-specific, acknowledging the uniqueness of individuals and settings Ravid, Researchers using this approach rely on observation and description of events.PLOS Biology provides an Open Access platform to showcase your best research and commentary across all areas of biological science..
Submit Now. We’re hearing a lot recently about fake news, and with the debates from different sides of the political spectrum so polarised, it can be difficult to even know what’s real.
So let’s take a break for a moment and talk about the theory of something we all agree is made up: Money. Since the s, war, earthquakes, hurricanes, and famine have taken their toll on Nicaragua.
Nicaragua managed to survive the s when the Sandinista-Contra war polarized the country in a brutal civil war. NBER Reporter: Research Summary Number 2. The Importance of Financial Literacy Annamaria Lusardi *. How much do individuals know?
Increasingly, individuals are in charge of securing their own financial well-being after retirement. Financial Literacy and Planning: Implications for Retirement Wellbeing Annamaria Lusardi, Olivia S.
Mitchell. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in May NBER Program(s):Aging Relatively little is known about why people fail to plan for retirement and whether planning and information costs might affect retirement saving patterns. Financial literacy is the possession of the set of skills and knowledge that allows an individual to make informed and effective decisions with all of their financial resources.
Raising interest in personal finance is now a focus of state-run programs in countries including Australia, Canada, Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom.