Labroo Every day, consumers make a myriad of decisions that have the ability to affect the greater good, which we define as the collective well-being of the broader social group. Given their broad communal consequences, such decisions are of great interest to a variety of constituencies, including policy makers, non-profits, communities, and marketers, as well as individuals. Accordingly, theory-driven inquiry into the antecedents and consequences of consumer behaviors that serve the greater good offers great theoretical and practical value.
Theories[ edit ] Response styles theory[ edit ] Response styles theory RST initially defined rumination as passively and repetitively focusing on one's symptoms of depression and the possible causes and consequences of these symptoms.
This change was made because rumination has been implicated in a host of disorders, not just depression. How do I feel about this event?
How can I change my thoughts and feelings about the event? How can I prevent disturbing thoughts and feelings in the future? However, in answering these questions, ruminators tend to focus on their emotions i.
Specifically, GPT views rumination as an example of the Zeigarnik Reaction paper in psychologywhich suggests that individuals are more likely to remember information from unfinished tasks than from finished tasks. Various studies have provided support for this prediction.
Not only are habitual ruminators more likely to become depressed, but experimental studies have demonstrated that people who are induced to ruminate experience greater depressed mood.
In other words, ruminating about problems was presumed to be a form of memory rehearsal which was believed to actually lengthen the experience of depression.
The evidence now suggests that although rumination contributes to depression, it is not necessarily correlated with the duration of symptoms.
Rumination in other models focuses on discrepancies between one's current and desired status goal progress, conceptual evaluative model of rumination.
Finally, other models propose that it is the negative themes of uncontrollability and harm in metacognitions that are most important. For example, some ruminative thoughts include "why am I such a loser", "I'm in such a bad mood" or "I just don't feel like doing anything".
It is consistently reported that rumination, in comparison to worrycontains past-related thoughts. Three forms of rumination have been proposed: State rumination is more common in people who are pessimistic, neuroticand who have negative attributional styles.
Action rumination, which consists of task-oriented thought processes focused on goal-achievement and correction of mistakes. Task-irrelevant rumination, which utilizes events or people unassociated with the blocked goal to distract a person from the failure.
Sex differences[ edit ] According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksemawomen tend to ruminate when they are depressed, whereas men tend to distract themselves.
This difference in response style was proposed to explain the higher rates of depression in women compared to men. According to Pennebaker, healthy self-disclosure can reduce distress and rumination when it leads to greater insight and understanding about the source of one's problems.
In contrast, when people repetitively ruminate and dwell on the same problem without making progress, they are likely to experience depression. Co-rumination is a process defined as "excessively discussing personal problems within a dyadic relationship"  Rose,a construct that is relatively understudied in both its negative and positive trade-offs.A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event.
Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include Anna O, Phineas Gage, and Genie.
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You might wonder, “What is the relevance of psychology to everyday life?” Well, here is the answer. Like it or not, the unconscious affects every aspect of our daily functioning, both personal and interpersonal..
Nevertheless, of all the pages on this website, this page is the most painful and the most sad, for . Historial Background to Positive Psychology in North America Humanistic Psychology. The story of positive psychology (PP) in America begins long prior to the modern movement called PP, and the humanistic psychologists provide a reasonable place to begin.
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